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, . CCIR/ARM2K. "... : , , , , ...". . 6 , "" 12 . , .

"" : , , - "0,005 % THD 20 - 20 " , 1 , , , , , 15 . , , , , : "... , 4 ...".

, , " 0,01 % THD" 1 , ( ), SMPTE ( 60 7 , 4:1, - .) 0,4...1 %, . , . , .

, , . , . . . "", "" , "". , . , .

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, - , . , , "" "Yamaha M-2" ( ). , , , 4 , , . - . . [2]. (""), [3]. - . PMI [4].

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, . 6...7 , , . , 85 ( 25 ), 100 58 500 - 30 . 600 ( . 1%). ( ).

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(. 1) : 48 , "" , , LRC-, ( ). , . , , , , , . , .



1401101, , , ( LM118/218/318 70- ), . , ()14011(01) 40 , "" . (50x106 100 ). , . - . , , , 110 , . , .

"" [3, 5] - , " " . , , (. 2) [3, 5, 6].



, 4 , . , . , , , , .

. 3 , , ( 1-3) +40 . 1 0,8 (. . 3,2 ), 2 - 0,8 45 . ( .4..203.001-75), 3 - 60 . , , , 2,5 - 3 , .

- , , , , . . . 4 1,6 ( ), - 60 . [7]. 3.

, : - " ", , . (), . , 8181/8191 ( ) 40 60...70 60, 40 , 60 32 , 80 - 26 .

. 3 4, . , . (MOSFET, ) , , . , - (- , ) (- ) , . , MOSFET, , . - , . , , 4 .



, , . , , . , . , . , , , .

, , , . , 2SA1302, 15 , 3 , 2SC3281 - 2,5 . , . - ( ) . "" .

. ()1401101 (3 .), - ()14014(08) 14023 ( 1 .). 3102 3107 ( 2 .), 632 638 ( 4 .), 502 503 (2 1 .), 9115 969 ( 3 .). 961 639 (4 5 .), 8181 8191 ( ). 521 522, 243 213.

. 4 . (DA1) . " " ("soft clipper"), VT1- VT4 VD3-VD14, , DA3. VT5-VT8, VT13-VT15 ( ) VT16-VT45. DA2 .


( )


( )

, DA3, ( 40 ) . R71C46 DA3 .

: ( . 4 - R59, R63) 2,5 , . . , , [5] [3], . ( ) 10...12 , . VD17-VD19 , VT5-VT8.

R64C41, R66C42 VT13 VT14, VD26, VD27 ( 100 10 ; 521 1N4148 ). , . 45, 47-49 .

VD25 VT13 VT14 , +5...7 . . +0,7 .

(R23, R24, R27C17 R28C18, R45, R46). ( , , ). R23, R24, R122 R123 .

, VT15 ( ) R60-R62 R65. .

C40. 0,2...0,5 /. . , VT15 "" ( 502 209) , - 50...200 - . .

" " VT1-VT4 VD3- VD14 , , .

, , . , ("" ) , , , . : , - .

"" SB1 1 (XS1 - . 5).



VT28-VT35, VT36-VT43 80...100 , .

, - . . 2 . ( ) , , .

56 400 (10...20 000 ). - : 1,5...2 9 45...60 000 ( - 75...100 ). .

- - . , ( S2 S3 ). , RLC-, 100...200 . , (6...7 ).

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(. 6), (en) (ed) . , (. . ). , , . , ("") , . , , , , , , , .



, , . , . : , , . , , ( ), . , , . , , , .

( ) 1401101 +0,8 , , . 1401101 ( ) , , . DA3 ( ) 1 .

DA3 0,5 . 1401101 50 0,05 %. VT5 - VT14 - 0,02...0,03 %.

, , , , - . , , . , , , AB, . , ( ), , , .

, . , "" , ( ). , . , , , (VD38-VD41).

, , . ( , , ..). .

. 8181 818 2:3 (.. 12 . 8), 864, 2818, 818, 2SA1302, 964, 2SA1294, 2SA1215, 2SA1216; 8191 - 819 ( 2:3) 865, 2819, 819, 2SC3281, 954, 2SC3263, 2SC2921, 2SC2922. 2SA1302 2SC3281, 2SA1294 2SC3263, 964 954 40 , 0,5 .

2SA1215 2SC2921 (+40 ), , 2SA1216 2SC2922 , , . 1500...2000 2.

961, 639 BD139 BD140, 961() 965(), 2SD669 2SB649, 2SA1837 2SC4793. 969, 9115 959() 960() BF871 BF872.

632 638, . VT8 9115, 960, 2SA1538, 2SA1433, 9143, VT7 - 2N3906, VT10, VT45 - 2N5401. 638 VT6 969, 959, 2SC3953, 2SC3504, 9141, VT5 - 2N3904, VT9, VT44 - 2N5551, 604, 605, 602. 3102 BC546 - BC550 ( ), 3107 - 3107 BC556 - BC560.

1401101 (DA3) ()14011 LM118/218/318 (, , ), - AD841 (, , ). 1401408 14014, LM108/208/308 AD705, OP-97. LF356 (14022), OP-176. 14023 LF357, OP-37 (14026).

.

. , , , , . ( 50 ) , . . , , . , - . , . [8]. , , (. . 3 - "",1999,10).

100 8...10 % . (85 105 ) 2000 , 10 [9]. ( ), , ( ), , , 10 % .( : , . . , (ESR - ) , 105 , , - , ( 85 ).

5 %, 50...60 000 .

, 5...7 % ( - 42...43 , 9...10 39...40 , 10...15 % ). , 0,2...0,25 . 0,05...0,06 . , .

, . , - - , . , "" , , .

, . , . , , , C1 (. . 4 - "",1999,11) . .

(. 7), . - T1 - , - T2, . , .


( )

T1 : - 40 ( 242 ), 1,2 , 2x30 - 0,07...0,08 . 29...31 ( 220 ). +52...54 8...9 1 . 0,3 .

1 10 2 ( 6 2 ) [8]. , () () .

T2 10 ( 242 ), - 150 . , VD20, VD26, 34...38 3...4 , - 25...29 2 . , 0,2 .

, .

, 1 32x50x90 330 ( 1,1 ).

, , , , - .

( 1-2) 285 Ø1,4 . 4-5, 5-6 9-10, 10-11 , 40 Ø2...2,1 ; 3-4, 6-7, 8-9, 11-12 , 24 Ø0,5 .

-2 . - , . . . .

. T1 SB1 R11 R12 (. 7). , 20 , - VS1 VS2, 8 . DD3 DD4, DD5.2 . DD5.1 .

SB1 DD1.4 R10C9 2 , DD3.2 DD4. ( 1) , T1 , . DD4. (. 1 DD4) 2 . DD3.1 . 32 5 DD4, DD5.2, VT1, VS1 VS2. 16 DD3.3 D- DD5.1 VT2, 1.

R20- R22, C8, VD12- VD14 DD1.3, DD1.4. "" , R22 8 DD1.3 (4...5 ), DD4 DD1.4 DD3.2. D- DD5 DD3.4. 0,6...0,7 - DA4, DD3.2 DD4, .

, , -, , -, , . .

K1. ( ) - RLC- ( 52 L1, R118 - . . 4). ,"" . , , RLC, L2, R120, R121 (+) 79 ( ). , - , "".( "" "" ).

- , . , , ( ). .

. , , . 2 0,25 , 20 - 0,08 . .

( "" ), DA3.1, DA3.2, ( "" DD2). , . , , (HL1 HL2 ). , . . , , 7-8 (3...3,5 ) .

"" DA4 . (0,5...0,6 ) R18VD18 R28VD19. , +12 , , +12 , R3 R4, R7 R8, R19 R29. R2512 1. Omron 12...15 40 . , R25, R45, C12. - 15 50 .

DA5-DA8. 14212 (LM317) 14218 (LM337) . -, (+18 ) - +16,5...17 . , . . -, C25, C28, C35 C38 ( ) - 0,2 . "" .

, 17-20 T3 - ( ). . ; 1 2 , 1500, 20 . , . 2 2 . R35R36C21 VS1, VS2 T2. SB2, "Ground Lift" ( ""), , .

, . . (, Transparent Audio Technology) ( ) . , $500 ( ) .



14011 - LM339 (BA10339, KA339, KIA339, HA17339, μPC339). 5543. 11571202 ( -26) 78L12 ( ), 116812 - 79L12. 14212 LM317, KA317, 14218 - LM337, KA337 ( - -220). 15...25 2. 972 (VT1, VT2) n-p-n ( 829), 150 , , ( 60) 100 , , 815. 243 - 1N4002-1N4007, 521 - 1N4148.

R11, R12 - 5-16 . - . . 1, C2, C6, C7, C24, C27, C34, C37 - , 25 , , -6, 10-17, 10-23 , - 30, 70. C16 - (73-9) (10-17) 1500. C4, C5, C8-11, C13, C14 - 73-17 . C17- C21 - 78-2 , ( ).

- 50-35 . R37-R44 ( 2-13, 2-26, 2-29 . .), , , 2-23. - 2 - , , 223 . - 1-4, . 405 402, 404 243 (1N4002-1N4007). VS1, VS2 125 6 (125-10-6, 125-108, 125-10-10, 125-12,5-6, 12512,5-10 . ). 132.

407 243 (1N4002-1N4007).

, (VD38- VD41 . 4) , 213, - 2997. - " ": . . . (213, 2997, 2995 . .) .

, 100 . , 30 , , , , , , . , 40CPQ100 50CPQ100 (IR), $6...7.

, , . , .



, ( - R60), , .

, "" -, , . "" .

, , 2...4%. , - , , .

, , , , .

, , ( ) , . , , , , , . , , , , , - , , , .

. (, , , ), . , ( 1-4 ). , . , "" . - , 2-23.

R1, R2, R7, R20, R22 - R24, R29 - R31, R36, R40, R122, R123. , , (Metal Film) - , 2-23, 2-13, 2-26, 2-29.

, 2% , :

[(R23+R24+R122+R123)/(R30+R31)]x(R29/(R36+R40)]=1 - 1...3%;

[(R23+R24+R122+R123)/R30]x[R29/(R36+R40)]=2 - 2...3%.

(Carbon), . 1% , . - ( 0,05...0,1%) .

( ) () , . 10 ( 1 ). , .

- , R1, R7, R22, R23, R24 20..30 ! : 0,1...0,5 /, 0,5...2 /.

R1, R2, R7, R20-R31, R35R40, R42-R46, R59, R63, R94-R109, R122, R123 (, , 2-23). R38, R44 R59, R63, 2...3%.

. , R3-R6, R8-R19, R32, R34, R47-R58, R61, R62, R64-R93, R110-R117 R33, R37, R39, R42, R43 . R60 - -19 ( ""). , , - . R118-R121 ( SQP), 5-16 2-23 . .

1000 - 10-7, 10-17, 10-43, 10-47, 10-506 ( -75), - NPO. , , - "". . , , . , 22-16, 22-5. (, 70-6) , .

( 100 ), ( 5%) 25 ( 46, 50 ). ( ), 100 - 1 2000. . - 7-12, E7-14.

6, 8, 10-12, 15, 19, 25, 40-44 - , . -5, 10-17, 10-23 (X7R ). , 7090 (Z5U, Y5V) . ( ) 25-30 .

1 , , (78-2, 71-4, 71-5, 71-7, 77-1, 77-2). , 77-2, , 73-17, 100 ( 700) 1 ( 200). 100 , 1 10 3%.

, 73-17 , ( 160 250 ). 77, 78 . , , (, MIT, SOLEN) 73-17, 78-2 71 -7.

1 20 , 40...50 . , "" , . 1 5%.

5, 9, C31, C32, C35, C37, C39, 45, 47-51, 77, 78 - - 73-17 (, ). - ( 0,02...0,04 ). (. ), - . 47 - 49, 77 78. 0,2...0,3 .

52 79 - , 78-2 (). , : 52 - 4700-2200 , 79 - 1500 - 3300 . ( 50 ), ( 1000 100 1 ).

2, 4, 13, 14, 20, 27, C30, C33, 53-76, 80, 81 - 50-35, 50-68. , . - ( "Low ESR"). . , . Hitachi, Marcon, Nichihon, Rifa, Rubicon, Samsung. , - , "For Audio" , "Low ESR" .

(2, 4, 13, 14, 20, 27) ( 10...20 ), . , .

, R=300-750 (0,5-1 ) 5 , , . 1 ...1 (. 8). , , , "" .



.

-, U1, . -, "" (.8). , , U2 fo .

, :



R - , UG - .

, - , - , , 1 . - 0,1...0,15 4700 3300 1,5 220 . - 0,02...0,05 .

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, ( 0,7 20 ), - 3...6 . , , 100 , , 7-9, 7-15. , 7-9 100 60 , 1 . .

VD1, VD2, VD15, VD16 ( 2...3 +60...80); VD9-VD14 10... 15 . VD26, VD27 - 0,7 ( 20 20), 3...5 120 +60...80. .

VD28 - VD31, VD36-VD41, - 100 150 ( 100 +60...80). , VD36-VD41 50.. .60 .

.9. VD38-VD41 1,3...1,5 . VD36, VD37 2 . .



VD22-VD25 7...8 . , VD23 70... 100 , VD24.

VT1-VT10, VT44, VT45 U h21 VT1-VT4 80...600, VT5-VT12 - 50...250 5...10 . VT1 -VT4 80...100 25 , VT5, VT8, VT9, VT10, VT44, VT45 - 80 , VT6, VT7 - 40 . 50 . h21 VT6, VT7. VT11, VT12 VT15 h21 50 I 5 60...80 U=6...10 .

VT13, VT14 ; , 10 U=6...10 40. VT16-VT19 - h21 10 U=5 60 ( 70...100). VT20-VT27. h21 , , 50...80%.

(VT28-VT43) h21 40 1 . h21&62;80 , . U 100 20 VT13, VT14, VT1 -VT19 80 VT20 - VT43 ( 0,2 VT20-VT27 2 VT28-VT43). U-60...80.

VT13, VT14, VT16-VT43 . , .

. ( ) . , : , , .

, , 0,6...2 .

VT13, VT14, VT16-VT42 . .

, , . h21 U.

U=5...10 , 10...15% ( ). , , ( ).

9115 5 14 , 969 - 3 . VT13 . h21 , U=10...12.

961 639 100...150 , h21 U=5. 1,5 639 1,2 961.

818 819 2 , h21 U= 5 , 1,8 818 1,5 819.

818 819 h21 U=5 : 1 3 . h21 3 , 65% , 1 .

818 819 1 818 819 ( - 43-1).

50 , ( ), .

DA1, DA3, DA4 .

.10 . (5 ) 60 / 4 1,5...2 . ( ) 5...10 , 20 - 14 . .



S1 S2, , 50 ( S2 50 ). 1,4 (7 ), - 1,5 .

DA2 , , . 11. 200 3 DA2.



DA5 . ( 1-2 ) 80 , - 1 ( ). .

310 x 120 (. . 12) 1,5-2 . 12 -28 (. 818 819) -220 ( 2.5 ).


. 12 ( )



. 13 (. . 12). , (. 4). . , , VT23A. R86B.


. 13 ( )

0, 1 -

2 - , - ;

FBH - +; FBL - -.

818 819 12 . (VT20-VT27B) , VT16-VT27B. , : R76. R77 - 130- 150 ( 390 ). R78-R81 - 8,2-to ( 15 ). R64, R66 10 . VT16-VT19 1,5...2 25 ^ - . VT13 VT14 (8...10 ^). VT13. VT14 R59 R63 160 ( 150 ).

, R82-R85 13 ( 68 ), a R86 - R93 - 3,3 ( 4,7 ). - 16 470 ( 270). R25 R26 - 2.7 ( 4,7 1 ). R33 47 ( 220). R38 R44 - 2.2 ( 2 ). R64 R66 - 10 ( 15). 17. 18 3-3,3 , 6,2 ( ).

VT20-VT43 VD26, VD27 VT16-VT19 521 . . .

( "" ) "" . (. . 14). "" R126 , 0,6 90... 100 . 1,2...1,3 VD46-VD49.



, DA 1 "" (3.5 ) . 4...6 VT46 303 364 R125 ( 150 ). 1401101 . VT46 R125 . VT46 -, 40 .

VT20-VT43 . . . , "" 5...8 .

, , , VD37-VD41 ( . 13 ), - "" , , . , - . , , .

. . 15.


( )

VT28-VT43 VD36-VD41 (. 16).



"a" . .

, 80, 81, VT15, VT20- VT43 VD36-VD41. ( VT15) , , ( ) . . , . 10 ( ) , , . VT20-VT43 VD36 -VD41. , . VT20-VT43, VD36-VD41 ( VD40, VD41, 80. 81. 0,6 ) 80. 81. , VT28-VT43. VT15, , , . . .

, VT 15 "".

: h21 , - 4.

VT20-VT27 , 2.5 . ( ) . 2,8...3 2 . , , , ("") 2,5...2,6 .

. (0,2...0,3 ) .

26- 2 PLS [10]. . , - . , , , .

26- . "" , . L1, L2, R118-.121, 77-79. S2 S3 , , . - 25 , .

L1 (1,3 ) 11, a L2 (1.8 ) - 14 1.7...2 . 18 . .

. 25 . ~ 350 .

53 (VD8, VD9 - . 7) . ( - VD42-VD45) 243. 243 247. 80. 81 - 1000 .

1 4 MPW-8 [11] 5.08 . . .

- 1. (1 - . 4) IDC14 14- . . 1.



(XS1 - . 5). "" . R16 (R26 - ) ( . 7) 5 1 R124 ( 0,3 - 4,7 - , ). (. . 14) ( ) , .

, , VD46- VD49 , R126 . VT46. R125 , DA3 "".

S1 (. . 4) PLS. . -, . 2 1 , 2 4 ( [3]). -, R30 . .

, 9115 969 70% . 9115 - 2SA1380. 969 - 602 2SC3502. , 2SAl538n2SC3953.

, - 639. BD139. BD140. , , , .

, , . 28 639 961 2SB649. 2SB649A ( -n-) 2SD669. 2SD669A ( n-p-n). 40 - 2SA1837 2SC4793.

, , . , . VT13. VT14, VT6 VT8. VT13 VT14 6441 R66C42 , VD23. VD24 (2SA1538 2SC3953) 22...47 . ( 0805 ). VT5. VT8 RC- 10...20 100...300 .

-n VT6. VT8 521 : (VT6. VT8). .

R94 - R109. R122. R123 0.5 . , 0.25 0,125 .

(, VD19 VT5, VT7). , , , .

53 - 76 : 22 25 10,3 12,7 . .

53 - 76 . C30, C3. 80 81 18 7,5 .

1 73-17. 77-2. 78-2 ( 3.5. 15 22.5 ).

. 5 . C11. 19 - =16,5 , - 0.1 .

- , , " " , .

, . , ( ), - . Audio Precision System One, . , . , ( 22, 80 200 ). , ( ), : .

(THD+N) 4 38 1 20 . 17. , . " " 80... 100 . 12 80 THD+N 200 0.003%. 20 ( ) , 1 . 1 , , 200 ( ) 0,0085 % (-81) .



(DIM-100) 15 (. 18).



, , "" .

, . . , -, , , . HL1 - HL4 SB1 (. . 19) . IDC 14 26. .

(. 2) . VS1 VS2 100 \ , . . RC- (0,022 . 240 ).

. (1. 4 - 7 . 19). 1 ( 40...80 ) 1000 1 2. - 10 - 15, 1.5 2. -0.12. 4 - 7 -0.07 178x5 , - 20 ( ). R47 - R50. S2 S3 (. . 4 "". 11 1999 .) - . 3 5, 4 6. - 1 3, 2 4.



, .

: 20 ( - 150...250 ) 5 (. 1-64. C1-65. C1-70, C1-91, C1-97. 1 -99. 1 -114. 1 -122), 3... 10 10...250 15 . 5 1 ( 10...20 . . -112). . , -, 3.9... 10 25 ( ). , .

. , 1564, 1554, 1594, 74, 74, 74, 2 ( ). () , .

250 (1-75. 1-104. 1-108). , 250 (7-9. 7-15).

, , (-102. -118. -50). , ( 100 ) . 80 (4-56).

, .

. , . S1 (. 19). 1 3, 2 4 , 3 5, 4 6 - "" .


( )

( 16...17.2 ), ( 1 ) DA5 - DA8 100 ( 160 2 ). "" .

. 7 8 ( 4 11) D D4 1-0.07 ..) . , , 6 DD3. 12 8 DD3 (. . 7 "", 12 1999 .). , "" (R11. R12) 3, 100 - 120 . DA3. DA4 DA3 HL1 HL2 ( 5. . . 19). DA4 .

DA3 DA4. 1 - , "" .

(, ).

R60 , ( ). R33. "" , R16, R17 56...62 . 10 - 22 (-) - 10 . S1 .

- VT5 - VT43. . VT5. VT7, R33 ( VT5, VT7 ); 40 1 , 4 - , 53 ( ). 40 4. RLC- .

VT13, VT14. ( R72 R75 ) 52...55 12... 15 , . VD23 VD24 3 . R59 R63 - 2.4 . R44 R38 - 15 . VT13, VT14 1 . ( - ""). VT9 - VT12, VT44, VT45 .

, VT44 +53 10 , (1- 1.5 ) . , , HL3 ( HL4) , VD22 .

VT44: 1,7... 2.2 . SB1 ( , . . 19). . , . 53 5 .

VT45. , -53 . . VD23 VD24 - 0.4 .

DA1. DA1 25 . 1 DA1 . ( -3 48 ). 1 2.

- VT5 - VT8. VT13 - VT43.

, ( ). . 80... 100 8 5 , . . VT5 VT7 , +16.5 -16,5 . 40 , , , 4 ( 2.3 6.7) 3,9 - 10 25 . , .

, 40 ( 9...25 ), VT15. 4,5 , R61.

VT14 . , VT14 -2.5...-3.5 . VT5 VT7 1 . R59. VD23 ( "") R63. VD24 ( ""). VT5. VT7 3...4 . . .

, . . , , VT20 - VT23 VT24 - VT27. 2.5 - , - VT20-VT27. - VT16. VT18 VT17. VT19 - . - VT20 - VT23 VT24 - VT27. , R60 , VT20 - VT23 VT24 - VT27 2.2...2.3 . .

. VT5, VT7 0.33 ( ), "" , (R94 - R108). 2. , .

VT5, VT7. - 4 . , VT5, VT7.

, 10 , 0.2...0.5 , . . VT5, VT7 10 110... 160. 1...2 , "" 50... 100 .

, , . - , . VT28 VT36, R60 180 . , 3.-4 ( ). , , , .

. 70... 120 . , , , . - , , ( , ).

. 1:10 ( 500 , ) 2,2...3.9 . VT5, VT7 0.3... 1 , , : VT5, VT7, VT6, VT8, VT13, VT14, VT13, VT14, VT16 - VT19. , , , .

, , VT5, VT7 - . , - .

. , RC- 33 - 68 100 470 10 . 10 - 39 .

40

, 10 , VT5, VT7 2.

. ( VT5, VT7), - 2. , ( ), . 0.5... 1 . 1...10 . . 2.



- , - , 2...4 . - 7 6...9". , , , VT 13 - VT 19, - VT20 - VT23 VT24 - VT27.

53 - 76 . "" 1...10 , , . , RLC- 500 .

, VT5. VT7 0.8... 1.2 . , ( ). , , . . - 818, 819 150 / ( - 250...300 /), 160..200 /. 30 .

R33. DA1. 40 . 2 , 52. . 2. , . , - 10 . - . , , . , . 22. 23 C32, C33 2200 .

, VT5, VT7 2 , , , R22 - R25. R27. R28. 16-18. DA3 - . - ( ). .

: 4 10 -0.7 ..+2 4 , 10 3.. 3.5 .

. 1 S1 (. 13) . 5... 10 . , 2. . 20 % ( 8 % - . . 20) . , "" , . "" "", . 20, - , . ( 10 90 % ) 70 (. . 21).



, , . . , (VT5 - VT8, VT13, VT14) . DA3. 20...25 % "" , 46 R71 .

. RLC- (L1. L2. R118-R121. 77. 78) 0.8 . 2 .

(100...200 ) . - S1. , 2 , . "" , 40 . , , , , 0,4 . .

80...90' ( ) . . , , , - . , , .

. 52 + - FBH ( - R40 R41) 2. .

- R16 R17 (, 75 ). , 0,2... 1 , , ( DA2) 2...3 ( ). . , , . R16 ( ), a R17 - .

30 . R114 R117 12... 15% , .

. . . . - - . , .

. 1.57 , , 22...25 . RC- 14... 16 .

. 1 , .

, . ( 0.75 2), , R65 R69. ( ) , .

, . -57. - 12... 15 %. 1...22 80... 100 .

, . . ( 1...2%) , 85 . , , DA1 VD9 - VDI4 "" . . 0.002%. , . 90 . 0.003%. .

, . , . , . , ( !) (, -118) .

, . . , (SpectraLab ..). , 22 . .. 11 .

- . 200...250 , . , . -118 -50 (0.0002% 10 ), .

, . "" 20 .



1. ?

- , "" , "" , , . .

2. ?

( ) - , 14 1977 . "Radio. Fernsehen, Elektronik" (Wiederhold M. "Neuartige Konzeption fur einen Hi-Fi Leistungverstrker"). . 1 . . , VT2 VT1, VT3 ( ). - , "" - (μ709 - 1531). , .



, . (" ". - . 1983. 7. . 51 - 53), (. 2) VD1 . , , +U1. , .



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  1. . ? - , 1997, 4, . 14-16.
  2. ., . . - , 1980, 7, . 36, 37.
  3. . . - , 1989, 6, . 55-57; 7, . 57-61.
  4. Alexander M. A Current Feedback Audio Power Amplifier. 88-th Convention of the Audio Eng. Society, reprint 2902, March 1990.
  5. Wiederhold M. Neuartige Konzeption fur einen HiFi-Leistungsfersterker. - Radio fernsehen elektronik, 1977, H.14, s. 459-462.
  6. . . - , 1989, 10, . 56-58.
  7. Baxandal P.J. Technique for Displaying the Current and Voltage Output Capability of Amplifiers and Relating This to the Demands of Loudspeakers. - JAES, 1988, vol. 36, p. 3-16. 17.
  8. . . - , 1983, 7, . 28, 29.
  9. ECAP Theory. - EvoxRifa Co., 1997.
  10. . - , 1997, 4, . 60.
  11. . - . 1997, 9. 49-51.
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